Welsh wound Innovation Centre

Venous Leg Ulcer

Venous leg ulceration is due to sustained venous hypertension, which results from chronic venous insufficiency. In the normal venous system, pressure decreases with exercise as a result of the action of the calf muscle pump. When the muscles relax, the valves in the perforating veins connecting the superficial to the deep venous circulation prevent reflux and the pressure remains low. The venous pressure remains high, however, in a system where the valves are incompetent.

New Publication

Trudie Young, WWIC's Director of Education and Training has recently published an article in Wounds UK. As part of the practice development section, the article is called 'Back to Basics: Understanding Venous Leg Ulceration'. Click here for a copy.


The European Wound Management Association (EWMA) has recently published a document in relation to the Management of Venous Leg Ulcers outlining challenges and current best practice. A copy of the document is available here.
Management of patients with venous leg ulcers
NICENICE produces Clinical Knowledge Summaries on a range of topics.

Updated in February 2016, you can find the advice for Venous Leg Ulcer here.

Healthcare Improvement Scotland (SIGN)


The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) develops evidence based clinical practice guidelines for the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland. SIGN guidelines are derived from a systematic review of the scientific literature and are designed as a vehicle for accelerating the translation of new knowledge into action to meet its aim of reducing variations in practice, and improving patient-important outcomes.

The Management of Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers (Guideline 120) was published in 2010. Click here for a copy. Citation details are included below.



Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Guideline title. Edinburgh: SIGN; Year. (SIGN publication no. xxx). [cited dd mmm yyyy].

Available from URL: http://www.sign.ac.uk


The SIGN website is available here.
World Union of Wound Healing Societies (WUWHS)


WUWHS have produce a number of documents as Principles of Best Practice.

​They have produced Compression in Venous Leg Ulcers: A Consensus Document.
Compression in veneous leg ulcers

International Compression Club


The International Compression Club is another organisation that provides a wealth of information and guidance.

Sickle Cell Disease

The NICE Clinical Knowledge Summary for sickle cell disease is available here


Scleroderma is caused by the immune system attacking the connective tissue under the skin and around internal organs and blood vessels. This causes scarring and thickening of the tissue in these areas.

There are several different types of scleroderma that can vary in severity. Some types are relatively mild and may eventually improve on their own, while others can lead to severe and life-threatening problems.

More information is available from the NHS Conditions website


Sarcoidosis is a rare condition that causes small patches of red and swollen tissue, called granulomas, to develop in the organs of the body. It usually affects the lungs and skin.

The symptoms of sarcoidosis depend on which organs are affected, but typically include:

tender, red bumps on the skin
shortness of breath
a persistent cough.

More information is available from the NHS Conditions website.


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March 5 2024



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